Gerrit Adriaensz Berckheyde (Dutch, 1638-1698), The Grote or St. Bavokerk in Haarlem, 1666, Oil on panel, 60.3 x 84.5 cm, Private Collection.
Jan Micker (Dutch, c. 1598-1664), A Bird's-Eye View of Amsterdam, in or after 1652, Oil on canvas, 100 x 137 cm, Amsterdams Historisch Museum.
Jan Beerstraten, The Old Town Hall of Amsterdam on Fire in 1652, c. 1652-1655, Oil on panel, 89 x 121.8 cm, Amsterdams Historisch Museum.
Meindert Hobbema (Dutch, 1638-1709), The Haarlemmersluis and the Haringpakkerstoren in Amsterdam, c. 1660-1661, Oil on canvas, 77 x 98 cm, The National Gallery, London, Bequeathed by Miss Beatrice Mildmay, 1953.
Jan van der Heyden (Dutch, 1637-1712), The Keizersgracht and the Westerkerk in Amsterdam, c. 1667-1670, Oil on panel, 54 x 63 cm, Eijk and Rose-Marie van Otterloo.
Jacob van Ruisdel (Dutch, c. 1628/1629-1682), Haarlem with the Bleaching Fields, c 1670-1675, Oil on canvas, 55.5 x 62 cm, Royal Picture Gallery Mauritshuis, The Hague.
Egbert van der Poel (Dutch, 1621-1664), Bonfire beside the Oude Delft Canal, c. 1650, Oil on panel, 55 x 43 cm, Museum Het Prinsenhof, Delft.
4th and Constitution
Pride of Place: Dutch Cityscapes
of the Golden Age
February 1-May 3, 2009
The booming economy of the Dutch Republic fostered a new genre of painting in the 17th century — the cityscape. Images of towns and cities expressed the enormous civic pride of the era. Some 40 Dutch master artists are represented in the exhibition, including Gerrit Berckheyde, Aelbert Cuyp, Carel Fabritius, Jan van Goyen, Jan van der Heyden, Pieter de Hooch, Jacob van Ruisdael, Pieter Saenredam, and Jan Steen. A standout is Van Goyen's 15-foot-long View of The Hague from the Southeast (c. 1650-1651), painted for the town hall. Other cities depicted in the exhibition include Amsterdam, Haarlem, Delft, Dordrecht, Hoorn, Middleburg, Utrecht, Nijmegen, and Rhenen.
Pride of Place: Dutch Cityscapes of the Golden Age, including 48 paintings and 23 maps, atlases, and illustrated books, offers a breathtaking survey of the Dutch cityscape, from wide-angle panoramas depicting the urban skyline with its fortifications, windmills, and church steeples, to renderings of daily life along the canals, in city streets, and in town squares.
The exhibition was organized by the National Gallery of Art, Washington, and the Royal Picture Gallery Mauritshuis, The Hague.
"We are proud to present the visual riches of these special paintings in this tour through Dutch city streets in the Golden Age," said Earl A. Powell III, director, National Gallery of Art. "We are greatly indebted to lenders who have generously shared their valuable works, among them numerous museums and many private collectors whose paintings have never been shown to the public."
"The National Gallery of Art exhibition Pride of Place: Dutch Cityscapes of the Golden Age pays homage to the outstanding ability of the Dutch masters. The paintings depict vibrant cities which would soon be paralleled in the new world colony of New Netherland, which later developed into New York" said Ambassador Renée Jones-Bos of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. "The exhibition coincides with the quadricentennial of Henry Hudson's voyage on the Dutch ship ‘Halve Maen' to that nascent colony. As we celebrate 400 years of friendship, we thank the National Gallery of Art for bringing this collection to the United States."
"These cityscapes reflect the power and wealth of 17th century Dutch cities. In particular, the 15-foot-long View of The Hague by Jan van Goyen captures the enormous civic pride. These panoramic paintings were a must-see during the exhibition at the Mauritshuis Museum and I predict the paintings will be as well received at the National Gallery of Art," said Jozias van Aartsen, Mayor of The Hague.
Paintings and maps allow visitors a closer look at alleys and prominent streets, cluttered canals, locks, gates, busy squares, loading docks, and markets. The paintings portray many scenes and skylines that are still recognizable in the Netherlands of the 21st century.
The origins of the cityscape genre may be traced back to the cartographic tradition in the Netherlands. The Dutch were known for highly accurate, impeccably decorated maps and atlases. Maps that depict city profiles emphasize distinctive skylines dominated by churches and town halls, while bird's-eye views and city plans meticulously recorded the streets and squares that were at the core of urban life.
The exhibition opens with profiles of cities seen from the water, including the National Gallery of Art's Maas at Dordrecht (1650s) by Aelbert Cuyp. A variety of maps and atlases in the next room includes an allegorical map of the Netherlands in the form of a heraldic lion, known as "Leo Belgicus." Also on view is Jan Christiaen Micker's unprecedented oil painting Bird's Eye View of Amsterdam (c. 1652), an adaptation of a map made in 1538. The painting, which resembles a modern aerial photograph, captures the patterns of shadows cast by clouds over the sun-drenched city below.
Holland was by far the most urbanized region of the 17 provinces of the Netherlands, evident in the many proud cityscapes of the largest and most prosperous cities: The Hague, the center of government; Amsterdam, the economic capital; Delft, with its intimate courtyards; and Haarlem, with its dynamic textile center situated near the dunes on the North Sea. The residents of Haarlem were particularly proud of their massive church St. Bavo, which even today defines the central market square. Native son Gerrit Berckheyde painted the church and the market numerous times, but St. Bavokerk in Haarlem (1666) is his most extraordinary depiction of the church. It fills the entire panel, with a remarkably accurate rendering of architectural details.
Jan van Goyen's massive View of The Hague from the Southeast (c. 1650-1651), a profile view of this urban center as seen from the surrounding flat countryside, is enlivened by boats and figures traveling along the waterway leading to Delft. This painting will dominate a room showcasing views of other towns and cities, such as Abraham de Verwer's tranquil and luminous View of Hoorn (c. 1645), a recent acquisition by the National Gallery of Art.
Amsterdam was the fastest-growing city in the Netherlands, becoming a port and trading center of international stature during this period. In 1652 Amsterdam's town hall, which was painted by Pieter Saenredam, burned in a spectacular fire that was recorded by many artists, including Jan Beerstraten. A new town hall (the present Palace on Dam Square), completed in 1665, was considered the eighth wonder of the world. In 1667Jan van der Heyden painted the town hall from an extreme angle, creating the sensation of the viewer looking up at this enormous structure.
Expansion projects in Amsterdam after 1650 established the widely admired and frequently rendered concentric canals lined by stately mansions and warehouses. While the canal views seem realistic, most blend architectural realism with artistic license, as in Berckheyde's Golden Bend in the Herengracht, Seen from the Vijzelstraat (c. 1672).
Many homes in Delft had courtyards that extended the domestic realm to the outdoors. These became the central feature of Pieter de Hooch's paintings, including his fine Portrait of a Family in a Courtyard in Delft (c. 1658). Jan Steen's celebrated painting, Adolf and Catharina Croeser on the Oude Delft (1655), links portraiture with the cityscape. Carel Fabritius' evocative View in Delft (1652) raises many questions about the role of perspective and optics in Dutch cityscape paintings.
Arthur K. Wheelock Jr., curator of northern baroque painting, National Gallery of Art, and Ariane van Suchtelen, curator, Royal Picture Gallery Mauritshuis, The Hague, are co-curators of the exhibition.
Pride of Place: Dutch Cityscapes of the Golden Age is accompanied by a fully-illustrated catalogue with essays by Wheelock and Boudewijn Bakker of the Amsterdam Municipal Archive, as well as Van Suchtelen, Henriette de Bruyn Kops, Jephta Dullaart, Molli Kuenstner, Norbert Middelkoop, and Lea van der Vinde. The catalogue is available from the Gallery Shops for $60 (hardcover) and $40 (softcover). To order, call (800) 697-9350 or (202) 842-6002; fax (202) 789-3047; or email firstname.lastname@example.org.
The year 2009 marks the 400th anniversary of Henry Hudson's voyage from Amsterdam to New York Harbor. In September 1609, he first set foot on the tip of Manhattan, which eventually became the thriving settlement that developed into New York City. In 2009, "Henry Hudson 400" will commemorate the legendary voyage with festivals in both Amsterdam and New York. A transatlantic sailing race will connect the cities.
Arthur K. Wheelock, Jr. received his Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1973. He came to the National Gallery of Art in 1973 as the David E. Finley Fellow, after which he was named research curator. At the same time, he began his teaching career at the University of Maryland, where he is professor of art history. He was appointed curator of Dutch and Flemish painting at the National Gallery in 1975.
Wheelock, who has lectured widely on Dutch and Flemish art, has written a number of books such as Perspective, Optics, and Delft Artists around 1650 (1977); Jan Vermeer (1981); Vermeer and the Art of Painting (1995); and the National Gallery of Art catalogue, Dutch Paintings of the Seventeenth Century (1995). He has written articles and essays such as The Story of Two Vermeer Forgeries, in Shop Talk: Studies in Honor of Seymour Slive (1995); Rembrandt Self-Portraits: The Creation of a Myth, in Rembrandt, Rubens, and the Art of their Time: Recent Perspectives (1997); The Queen, the Dwarf, and the Court: Van Dyck and the Ideals of the English Monarchy, in Van Dyck 1599-1999: Conjectures and Refutations (2001); and The Appreciation of Vermeer in Twentieth-Century America (co-author with Marguerite Glass), in The Cambridge Companion to Vermeer (2001).
Wheelock has organized major exhibitions at the National Gallery, such as Gods, Saints & Heroes: Dutch Painting in the Age of Rembrandt (1980); Anthony van Dyck (1990); Johannes Vermeer (1995); Jan Steen: Painter and Storyteller (1996); A Collector's Cabinet (1998); From Botany to Bouquets: Flowers in Northern Art (1999); Gerrit Dou: Master Painter in the Age of Rembrandt (2000); Aelbert Cuyp (2001); Gerard ter Borch (2004); and Rembrandt's Late Religious Portraits (2005). He also organized The Public and Private in the Age of Vermeer at the Osaka Municipal Museum, Japan, in 2000.
In 1982, at the time of the Dutch-American Bicentennial, Wheelock was named Knight Officer in the Order of the Orange-Nassau by the Dutch Government. The College Art Association/National Institute awarded him its Conservation Award for Distinction in Scholarship and Conservation in 1993. He received the Minda de Gunzburg Prize for the best exhibition catalogue of 1995 (Johannes Vermeer); the Johannes Vermeer Prize for Outstanding Achievement in Dutch Art, which was presented by the Johannes Vermeer Stichting; the Bicentennial Medal from Williams College; and the Dutch-American Achievement Award, presented by The Netherlands American Amity Trust. In 2006 Wheelock was named Commander in The Order of Leopold I by the Belgian government.