Bridget Tichenor, Autoretrato (Self Portrait), undated, Oil on canvas, Canvas: 50.01 x 50.0126 cm, Private collection, © Bridget Tichenor Estate, Photo courtesy of Yoja Tapuach.
Frida Kahlo, Autoretrato con collar de espinas colibri (Self-Portrait with Thorn Necklace and Hummingbird), 1940, Oil on canvas, 76.2 x 60.96 cm, © 2011 Banco de Mexico Diego Rivera Frida Kahlo Museums Trust, Mexico, D.F. / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York, Photo Courtesy Harry Ransom Hunanities Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin.
Dorothea Tanning, Birthday, 1942, Oil on canvas, 102.2 x 64.8 cm, © 2011 Dorothea Tanning Collection and Archive / Artist's Rights Society (ARS) New York/ADAGP, Paris, Photo © The Philadelphia Museum of Art / Art Resource NY.
Los Angeles County Museum of Art
5905 Wilshire Boulevard (at Fairfax Avenue)
In Wonderland: The Surrealist Adventures of Women Artists in Mexico and the United States
January 29-May 6, 2012
In Wonderland: The Surrealist Adventures of Women Artists in Mexico and the United States is the first large-scale international survey of women surrealist artists in North America. Past surveys of surrealism have either largely excluded female artists or minimized their contributions. This landmark exhibition highlights the significant role of women surrealists who were active in these two countries, and the effects of geography and gender on the movement. Spanning more than four decades, In Wonderland features approximately 175 works by 47 extraordinary artists, including Frida Kahlo, Lee Miller, Leonora Carrington, Remedios Varo, Dorothea Tanning, Louise Bourgeois, and more.
“In many respects these surrealists were similar to Lewis Carroll’s central character — Alice — in his famous nonsensical novels. Their creativity was often stifled or marginalized by what seemed to be a somewhat arbitrary and bizarre world where logic did not always reign,” notes Ilene Fort, exhibition curator and LACMA curator of American art. “This expansive survey illustrates that North America offered these women a degree of independence they could not experience in Europe. Hence it became for them a land of reinvention, their wonderland.”
The exhibition is co-curated by Dr. Ilene Susan Fort, LACMA’s Gail and John Liebes Curator of American Art, and Tere Arcq, MAM’s Adjunct Curator. After premiering at LACMA, In Wonderland travels to the Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec (MNBAQ) (June 7-September 3, 2012), and the Museo de Arte Moderno in Mexico City (September 27, 2012-January 13, 2013).
Exhibition Overview Surrealism called for the destruction of bourgeois culture and traditional standards and advocated intellectual and political liberty. When promoted in North America, these ideals flourished especially among the supposedly “second sex.” In standard studies on surrealism, female artists have been cast primarily as mistresses, wives, or muses — the inspiration for the male fetishized subject matter. This exhibition however explores the legacy of the movement in the United States and Mexico through its influence on several generations of women artists. Unlike their male counterparts, these artists delved into the unconscious as a means of self-exploration that enhanced an often haunting self-knowledge in their quest to exorcise personal demons. For women surrealists — whether natives by birth, émigrés, or temporary visitors — North America offered the opportunity for reinvention and individual expression, a place where they could attain their full potential and independence.
In Wonderland illuminates the work of a diverse group of artists — both well-recognized and lesser known — who were active during a period that witnessed both the internationalizing of surrealism and the professionalizing of women in the visual arts in urban centers such as Mexico City, New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, and San Francisco.
The survey presents an extensive range of work, including paintings, works on paper, sculpture, photographs, and film. The works date primarily from about 1930 (the period when Lee Miller and Rosa Rolanda first experimented with surrealist photograph techniques) to 1968 (the year that Yayoi Kusama, working in New York City, presented one of her landmark happenings, Alice in Wonderland, in Central Park). A selection of later works is also included to illustrate surrealism’s historical overlap and influence on the feminist movement.
Exhibition Organization In Wonderland is organized according to nine major themes that demonstrate recurrent issues in the women’s lives and art: Identity; The Body and Fetishes; The Creative Woman; Romance and Domesticity; Games and Technical Innovations; North America: The Land, Native People, and Myths; Politics, Depression and the War; Abstraction; and Feminism.
Most prominent in the show are portraits and self-referential images, ranging from bluntly honest to disturbing, that reveal unresolved issues haunting the artists. Equally telling are the many double, couple, and group portraits, and narrative fables that exemplify the women’s friendships, loves, and families, and convey the difficulties and dramas often involved in such relationships. For instance, the portrayal of love and marriage ranges from storybook romances by Sylvia Fein and Remedios Varo; cynical, somewhat eerie courtship scenes by Leonora Carrington and Gertrude Abercrombie; and an obsessive fascination for a lover (i.e., Diego Rivera) by Frida Kahlo. The struggle of motherhood and domesticity versus an artistic career is often cast in terms of houses, dolls or other toys in the works of Carrington, Ruth Bernhard, Louise Bourgeois, Gerri Gutmann, and Kati Horna.
Exhibition Publication The exhibition’s accompanying book includes more than 250 color illustrations, along with several essays exploring the major themes of In Wonderland. The book is edited by co-curators Ilene Susan Fort and Tere Arcq, with Terri Geis, and features contributions from Dawn Ades, Maria Buszek, Whitney Chadwick, Rita Eder, Salomon Grimberg, and Gloria Orenstein.
Gertrude Abercrombie, Self-portrait of My Sister, 1941, Oil on canvas, 67.31 x 55.25 cm, © Gertrude Abercrombie Trust, Photo © The Art Institute of Chicago.