Left, Throne Baldachin (detail), From eight separate tapestry components, Designed by Hans Knieper, Woven under the directorship of Hans Knieper, Helsingør (Denmark), 1585-86, Nationalmuseum, Stockholm (Indep 2 LRK 28861, 28862), on long-term loan from the Livrustkammaren, Stockholm. Right, The Battle of the Milvian Bridge (detail), From a six-piece set of the Story of Constantine, Design by Peter Paul Rubens, 1622, Border design attributed to Laurent Guyot, ca. 1622-23, Woven in the Faubourg Saint-Marcel workshop, Paris, ca. 1623-27, Kunstkammer, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna (T XVIII 3).
Water, From a four-piece set, plus four entrefênetres, of the Four Elements, Design by Charles Le Brun after a scheme devised by the Petite Académie, 1664, Cartoon for the main scene by Baudrin Yvart, 1664, Cartoon for the borders by Isaac Moillon, 1664, Woven in the workshop of Jean Jans the Elder at the Manufacture Royale des Gobelins, Paris, 1666
Wool, silk, and gilt-metal-wrapped thread; 488 x 688 cm, Inscribed JANS 1666 above the lower selvage at right, Deposito Arazzi della Soprintendenza Speciale per Il Polo Museale Fiorentino, Palazzo Pitti, Florence (Arazzi no. 7).
Caesar Crowned by Fame (detail), From a set of the Story of Caesar, Design and cartoon by an artist tentatively identified here as Charles Poerson, ca. 1650-67, Woven in the workshop of Jean or Hieronymus Le Clerc, Brussels, ca. 1660-80, Wool and silk; 374 x 407 cm, Kunstkammer, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna (T CV2 2).
January and February (detail), From a set of the Allegory of Time, Design by Jan van den Hoecke with Pieter Thijs and Adriaen van Utrecht, ca. 1647-50, Woven in the workshop of Everaert Leyniers III, Brussels, ca. 1650, Wool, silk, and gilt-metal-wrapped thread; 377 x 450 cm, Brussels mark in bottom selvage at left; EVERAERT LEYNIERS FESIT in center of bottom selvage; IOES VAN HOECKE INV ET PINX in bottom selvage at right, Kunstkammer, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna (T XLVII 1).
Moses Rescued from the Nile (detail), From a proposed six-piece set of the Story of the Old Testament, Cartoon by Simon Vouet, with several collaborators, ca. 1640, Woven in the workshop of Girard Laurent, in the galleries of the Palais du Louvre, Paris, begun before 1643, Wool and silk; 495 x 576 cm, Mobilier National, Paris (GMTT 23/1), deposited at the Musée du Louvre, Paris.
Surprise Attack on Calais (detail), First panel of a seven-piece set of the Battles of the Archduke Albert, Design by Otto van Veen, 1597; cartoons painted by Jan Snellinck the Elder, 1597-99, Woven in the workshop of Maarten Reymbouts II, Brussels, 1597-99, Silk, wool, and silver and gilt-metal wrapped thread; 355 x 603 cm, Weaver's mark of Maarten Reymbouts II at bottom of right selvage, Patrimonio Nacional, Palacio Real, Madrid (TA-46/1 10005712).
The Protection of Rome from Plague and Famine, From the ten-piece set, plus borders, of the Life of Pope Urban VIII, Design by Ciro Ferri and Giacinto Camassei, cartoon by Camassei, 1673, Woven in the Barberini workshop under the direction of Maria Maddalena della Riviera, Rome, May 1673-July 1675, Wool and silk; 404 x 503 cm, Vatican Museums, Vatican City (43827).
The Triumph of the Church over Ignorance and Blindness (detail), From a twenty-piece set of the Triumph of the Eucharist, Design by Peter Paul Rubens, ca. 1626-28, Woven in the workshop of Jan Raes II, Brussels, ca. 1626-33, Wool and silk; 490 x 752 cm, Brussels mark in bottom selvage at far right; weaver's name IAN.RAES.F. in bottom selvage at right; inscribed ECCLESIAE TRIUMPHUS in central cartouche, Patrimonio Nacional, Monasterio de las Descalzas Reales, Madrid (TA-D/3 00610325).
The Miraculous Draft of Fishes (detail), From an eight-piece set of the Acts of the Apostles, From seven designs by Raphael, 1515-16, copied by Francis Clein with additions and new border designs between ca. 1625 and ca. 1639, Woven in the Mortlake workshop, Surrey, this piece ca. 1636-37; the set, late 1620s to early 1640s, Wool, silk, and gilt-metal-wrapped thread; 530 x 580 cm, Marks of England at bottom right, Sir James Palmer at lower right, Mobilier National, Paris (GMTT 16/4).
Maidservant with a Basket of Fruit (detail), From an eight-piece set of Scenes of Country Life, Design and cartoon by Jacob Jordaens and workshop, ca. 1627-28, Woven in the workshop of Conrad van der Bruggen, Brussels, ca. 1635, Wool and silk; 380 x 327 cm, Brussels mark, center of lower selvage; weaver's mark, lower right border, Kunstkammer, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna (T C 8).
Metropolitan Museum of Art
1000 Fifth Avenue at 82nd Street
The Tisch Galleries, 2nd floor
Tapestry in the Baroque:
Threads of Splendor
October 17, 2007-January 6, 2008
From the Middle Ages through the late 18th century, the courts of Europe lavished vast resources on tapestries made in precious materials after designs by the leading artists of the day, and works in this spectacular medium were prized by the aristocracy for their artistry and also as tools of propaganda. Tapestry in the Baroque: Threads of Splendor offers the first comprehensive survey of high-quality 17th-century European tapestry, and demonstrates the importance of tapestry as a prestigious figurative medium throughout that century. Organized by the Metropolitan Museum, it is a sequel to the groundbreaking exhibition, Tapestry in the Renaissance: Art and Magnificence, that received widespread public and scholarly acclaim during its presentation at the Metropolitan in spring 2002.
“This exhibition will provide one of the grandest displays of Baroque tapestry that has been seen since Louis XIV strolled through the galleries of Versailles,” said Philippe de Montebello, Director of the Metropolitan Museum. “As a visual experience, it will be without parallel for a modern audience.”
Drawing from collections in more than 15 countries, Tapestry in the Baroque: Threads of Splendor presents 40 rare tapestries made between 1590 and 1720. Commissioned by kings, popes, and noblemen, these woven frescoes embody the grandest artistic ambitions of their patrons. The pieces have been selected for their condition and color, and together provides an unprecedented insight to the role of tapestry in 17th — century court culture.
The secondary theme of the exhibition is the stylistic development of tapestry during this era and the contributions of artists like Peter Paul Rubens, Jacob Jordaens, Simon Vouet, Charles LeBrun, Pietro da Cortona and Giovanni Romanelli, as they responded to the challenges of the medium in unique and individual ways. The exhibition includes about 25 designs and oil sketches, demonstrating the thought and artistry which these woven frescoes required.
About half of the tapestries in the exhibition derive from Flemish workshops, reflecting the preponderant role of the Low Countries in the greatest tapestry production of the day. Highlights of the Brussels tapestry industry include the Triumphs of the Church designed by Peter Paul Rubens for the archduchess Isabella in 1626, tapestries from the Austrian state collection designed by Jacob Jordaens and others in the 1630s and 1640s, and the Victories of the Duke of Marlborough woven in Brussels in the early 1700s for Blenheim Palace in England. Migrant Flemish weavers also played a key part in the formation of new workshops elsewhere in Europe. The exhibition includes rare examples of this work, including a throne canopy made for the King of Denmark in 1584, tapestries made at Mortlake for Charles I, King of England in the 1620s, and exquisite tapestries from Florence, Rome and Paris. Some of the most ambitious tapestries of the day were woven for Louis XIV at the Gobelins manufactory, established in Paris in 1662. The exhibition includes a survey of the finest products of this enterprise.
Thomas P. Campbell, curator of the exhibition, noted: “For most rich 17th-century patrons, tapestry remained the principal medium of figurative decoration and propaganda. Yet the subject is barely mentioned in modern history books. Tapestry in the Baroque provides a counterbalance to this myopic vision of the past.”
The exhibition comprises nine sections that follow the development of the leading European tapestry centers between the mid-1580s and about 1720. The first section focuses on the diaspora of weavers from the Southern Netherlands during the civil war of the 1570s and 1580s and the creation of new workshops elsewhere. It opens with a spectacular throne canopy made by Flemish weavers in Copenhagen in 1584, and wall hangings from a manufactory established in Delft in about 1590 by Frans Spiering, formerly of Antwerp. The Spiering workshop enjoyed great success during the following 20 years, providing tapestries to the Protestant courts of northern Europe from designs by artists like Karel van Mander the Elder. This section includes tapestries made in Munich in the early 1600s for Maximilian I by Flemish artists and designers.
The second section focuses on the revival of the Brussels industry in the early 1600s, under the patronage of the Archdukes, Albert and Isabella. Local artists lacked the design experience of their forebears, as evidenced by sets such as the Battles of Archduke Albert and, consequently, “old master” designs continued to play an important part in Brussels production throughout the first third of the 17th century. During the 1610s new life was introduced to Brussels tapestry design by Rubens’ Decius Mus designs (ca. 1616), which are represented by an especially fine weaving from the Spanish royal collection. Rubens painted the cartoons for the Decius series in oil on canvas, rather than the traditional medium of watercolor on paper, with the consequence that the design was conceived in terms of color, light and shadow, challenging for the weavers to reproduce in wool and silk. Nonetheless, the series provided an important new design to the repertory of the Brussels workshops and, in time, a significant model for other designers, both in Brussels and elsewhere.
The recession of the Brussels industry in the last quarter of the 16th century allowed the tapestry industries in other countries to grow and flourish (often with the aid of immigrant Flemish weavers). The most important of these centers was Paris, which is the subject of the third section of the exhibition. Here again, the challenge was to reference good designs. Late 16th-century artwork provided some models, such as a manuscript Story of Artemisia created in the 1560s for Catherine de Medici with illustrations by Antoine Caron. Forty years later, this was used as the basis for cartoons painted by Toussaint Dubreuil, among others. A new repertoire was introduced from the early 1600s by artists such as Henri Lerambert, who was responsible for completing a Story of Diana series conceived by Dubreuil. This is represented by an especially fine weaving from Kunshistorisches Museum, Vienna. The continuing quest for new designs led Louis XIII to commission a Story of Constantine series from Rubens in 1622. The resulting work is one of Ruben’s greatest contributions to the tapestry medium, although it failed to capture the royal appointment for which the artist hoped, partly because Louis and his courtiers perceived some of the same design flaws in the compositions as those already noted in the Decius series. Not until the late 1620s did the Paris ateliers found their true champion with the work of Simon Vouet. Like the most successful tapestry designers of the mid-16th century, Vouet produced his cartoons in collaboration with a team of artists, some skilled in landscapes, others in border design, ensuring that the whole surface of the completed cartoons was well drawn, richly patterned, and visually engaging. The exhibition includse one tapestry and various engravings from Vouet’s Story of the Old Testament.
Henri IV’s patronage of the Paris workshops provided an example for other courts of the day. In 1619, James I, King of England, founded a new manufactory at Mortlake on the outskirts of London, staffed with Flemish weavers who were enticed to England in great secrecy. The fourth section of the exhibition considers the production of this workshop before the outbreak of the English civil war in the early 1640s. During its early years, Mortlake also depended for models on “old master” designs, such as Raphael’s Acts of the Apostles, the original cartoons of which were purchased in Genoa in 1623. The first set of this design was woven for Charles I (king from 1625) between 1626 and 1636, with elaborate allegorical borders designed by the German artist Frans Cleyn. The exhibition includes one piece of this set. During the following decade, Cleyn developed new series for the English court under the influence of work by Rubens and Van Dyck. Rare examples of his work is included in the exhibition.
The fifth section of the exhibition returns the focus to Brussels. In 1626 the Archduchess Isabella commissioned Rubens to create a series of tapestries for the convent of the Descalzes Reales in Madrid. The resulting Triumph of the Eucharist series, Rubens’ most ambitious tapestry scheme, is an all-surrounding, tromp l’oeil ensemble that blends biblical and allegorical figures with contemporary portraits. The ensemble survives in its entirety and the Spanish royal collection has agreed to lend two key pieces to the exhibition. These are displayed in the context of oil sketches by Rubens so that the project can be followed from conception to final design. The second part of this section features work by Rubens’ contemporaries and followers, such as Jacob Jordaens and Jan van den Hoecke, who combined the tromp l’oeil and bravura of Rubens designs with more decorative and anecdotal elements. The tapestry designs of these and other artists ensured the continuing vitality of the Brussels workshops during the mid-16th century.
The sixth section of the exhibition considers contemporary developments in Italy. The Italian nobility and clergy continued to place a high premium on tapestry throughout the late 16th and early 17th centuries. Nonetheless, because of the cost of production, most of the princely manufactories established in the 1530s and 1540s had long since closed, with the exception of the Medici manufactory, which continued to make tapestries for the ducal family and a handful of private clients. Various products of the Medici works drawn from the collection of the city of Florence is featured, including works by Lodovico Cardi and Lorenzo Lippi. These reflect the stylistic development of Florentine art during the first decades of the 17th century. Inspired by the example of 17th - century Italian patrons, and by the contemporary enterprises in Paris, London, and elsewhere, the Barberini family established a new manufactory in Rome during the late 1620s. Tapestries produced at this workshop from designs by artists such as Pietro da Cortona and Giovanni Romanelli were a key component of the visual propaganda with which the Barberini family promoted their status in Baroque Rome. The exhibition includes rare examples of this work from the Philadelphia Museum of Art and from the Vatican collections.
The seventh section of the exhibition concentrates on the Gobelins manufactory, created by Jean Baptiste Colbert in Paris in the early 1660s. Colbert amalgamated the existing Paris workshops at a single site, under the direction of the versatile and gifted artist Charles Le Brun, with the intention of devoting their energies to the production of splendid tapestries to aggrandize Louis XIV. Benefiting from royal funding and the combined efforts of the most skilled artists and weavers in the country, the tapestries produced at the Gobelins during the following three decades are as fine as any tapestries ever produced. The exhibition features pieces from some of the most ambitious and artistic series made for Louis, including the Elements, the Story of Alexander, the Story of the King, and the Royal Residences. Colbert died in 1683 and under his successor, Louvois, Le Brun fell from royal favor. During the 1680s a significant portion of the Gobelins production was dedicated to the reproduction of some of the finest tapestry designs of the 1520s and 1530s, as well as various fresco schemes by Raphael and Giulio Romano, in an attempt to appropriate the riches of past patrons to the court of Louis XIV. Key examples are included. A number of new designs were also developed from a variety of sources, including a series depicting the exotic landscape and animals of Brazil, inspired by paintings of the Dutch artist Albert Eckhout.
At the same time that Colbert established the Gobelins, he also established the Beauvais manufactory to produce tapestries for the commercial market. The eighth section of the exhibition focuses on this production, which had a more modest and decorative character than that of the Gobelins. Series such as the Berain Grotesques and the Chinoiseries introduce a decorative character that reflects the changes in contemporary court taste.
With the example of the French court and the Gobelins, tapestry remained a central component in the decoration of the courts and great houses throughout Europe during the last quarter of the 17th century and the opening decades of the 18th century. Meeting this demand, the Brussels workshops enjoyed something of a second renaissance, producing exquisite tapestries from designs by artists like Jan van Orley and Philippe de Hondt. The exhibition concludes with some of the most ambitious of these works, such as the Victories of the Duke of Marlborough from Blenheim Palace and a Naval Battle from Neues Schloss, Schleissheim. The latter is the size of a modern-day cinema screen and just as dramatic as a Hollywood movie.